I currently have 2 computers and one android phone (planning on buying another laptop or RPi). How can I modify the three to work on the processes running on my primary computer? For the sake of the argument, lets assume that I am creating a 200GiB encrypted container. How can the architectural difference between ARM and AMD-64 be handled while I am creating this container?
From what I've seen, clusters are generally given to compute parts of a full problem. If those depend on one another though, you have blocking and lose benefit of parallelism. By virtue of the problem type, you generally need to implement domain-specific solutions and can't really make a one-size-fit-all solution.
I'm not sure how your example could work, generally you need specialized software for distributed computing. If you have actual problems that would benefit from a distributed architecture, I recommend writing programs for them with MPI and managing your nodes and tasks using Slurm.